1. Introduction

1.1 Engineering problem being addressed 
Have you ever wondered how electricity is being generated in your own home? All the costs and complications that come with it? Well, in rural areas across the world, the people are not as privileged as us. They are not exposed to the luxury of heated floors, warm showers and hot water for cooking. Electricity is hard to come by in many parts of the world, and just because some of us have it, we should still take into consideration those who don’t. By coming up with a hydro-generator, it would not only improve the lives of the less fortunate, but improve the living conditions of people all around the world.

1.2 Our engineering goal
We want to construct a hydroelectric system in which will reduce the costs of utility bills. This would make lives easier for everyone and this idea could then be shared around the world for people to implement it into their households and even public sanitary systems to reduce the cost of electricity both in rural and rich countries or states.

1.3 Specific Requirements
1. Our system must be able to store energy with each usage of water.
2.Our system will use the energy stored in the battery charged for the next usage of the toilet.



1.4 Alternative solutions
1.4.1 Solar generated electricity
Solar power is commonly used on Earth, many companies use it to save costs on electrical bills, even just to power simple lighting.

Using this method of generating electricity would be good for many rural areas as there is a lot of sunlight that would be able to reach these regions. If we were to use this, the advantages would be that it would generate electricity even if there is no one to operate it and that solar panels can last a long time. However, the cost for a solar panel can cost an average of USD$1000.This makes it hard for people in rural areas to pay for the solar panels.

How it works: When photons reach the surface of the solar panel, it separates the electrons and the holes from each other, and when the electrons and holes meet at the junction, the energy from the photons in the light rays are converted into electrical energy.
Figure 1 : Solar panel diagram
Wind-turbine
With winds coming from all over the world, wind turbines is actually a good idea, as long as wind is present, electricity is generated and it can power light bulbs and if the turbines are much bigger, even power houses.

Wind is an effective source of electricity in many countries due to it being a free resource with turbines coming in many different sizes and voltages. However wind turbines require high wind speeds and huge amount of land space. Maintenance is also costly and no buildings can be built around them as it may block the wind needed to spin the turbines.

A 10 kilowatt machine (the size needed to power a large home) might have an installed cost of $50,000-$80,000 (or more) depending on the tower type, height, and the cost of installation
Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture more energy.
Figure 2 : Wind-turbine


Hydro-electricity
Hydro-electricity is defined by electricity being harvested from moving water. There are usually two methods, using spinning turbines (flowing) and the gravitational force of falling water.

This method of energy generation has it’s advantages as costs are relatively low. This would be idealistic for the project as it will be cheaper to install. It is a flexible source of energy as the amount produced can be tweaked whenever needed. No direct waste would be produced, lessening the effects as compared to fossil fuel powered hydro-electric energy plants.

We can make use of turbines and the flow of water instead, which requires less space and does not hurt our environment. Turbines and generators would have to be put in place and fitted to our water generating systems.
Figure 3 : Hydro-electricity

Best Solution
Hydro electricity has been chosen as installation is easy, maintenance can be easily done, the space needed is not large and it can be used in most households around the world. We did not choose the other 2 solutions as both rely on natural phenomenons like the sun and wind, which limits where the final product can be used in.
For example, places in the equatorial region like Singapore would not have much sunlight for solar panels to operate. Places like New York City have many high rise buildings that block wind flow in turn blocking off wind meant for the windmills
However, hydro-generators can be put in households itself, as long as there is someone to use taps or even flushing toilets will allow the hydro generators to keep running. We have also chosen this solution due to the low costs of the hydro generators. The user can save up to $3.60 per day in Singapore. Hydro generators are also cheaper than solar panels and wind turbines, making it more affordable for poorer countries such as Africa.

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